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Episode 41 - A Man's Crime: Alice Mitchell & Freda Ward

In 1892, 17-year-old Freda Ward was walking to the river landing when she was attacked with a razor blade and had her throat slit. The ensuing legal battles brought national attention to Memphis, Tennessee, and challenged her society’s views on gender and love.


Abate, Michelle Ann. Tomboys: A Literary and Cultural History. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2008).

Astor, Vincent. “Alice & Freda: In 1892, Memphis girls’ young love ends tragically, creates national headlines.” Focus LGBT. February, 2018.

Coe, Alexis. Alice + Freda Forever: A Murder in Memphis. (Minneapolis: Zest Books, 2014).

“A Very Unnatural Crime.” The Toast. September 6, 2013.

“Girl Slays Girl: An Excerpt From ‘Alice + Freda Forever’.” Jezebel. October 7, 2014.

“How My Book Infected My Nightmares.” VICE. October 28, 2014.

Cortez, Ali. “A Love Gone South in ‘Alice + Freda Forever’.” Deep South Mag. October 3, 2014.

Duggan, Lisa. Sapphic Slashers: Sex, Violence, and American Modernity (Durham: Duke University Press, 2000).

Fowler, Russell. “Evil on the Bench: The Rise and Fall of Judge Julius J. DuBose.” Tennessee Bar Association. February 1, 2020.

“Jenny Higbee and the Memphis Higbee School.” Historic Memphis.

Lindquist, Lisa J. “Images of Alice: Gender, Deviancy, and a Love Murder in Memphis.” Journal of the History of Sexuality. Vol. 6. No. 1. (July, 1995) pp. 30-61.

Newspapers: The Bolivar Bulletin, The San Francisco Call, The New York Times

Music: Credits to David Fesilyan and Luke Holizna

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